The official website of Sheikhpura District of Bihar
» Historical Background

Though there is no authentic history of Sheikhpura scripted in any book or records but according to knowledge collected from various sources history of Sheikhpura dates back to the age of Mahabharata. It is believed that in the Mahabharata age a demon girl Hidimba lived on the hillocks situated on its Eastern stretch with whom one Pandava brother Bhima married and gave birth to a heroic son ‘Ghatotkach’. Later on this hill was called ‘Girihinda’ after the name of Hindimba or Hidimba. Girihinda village is still situated over there.

According to one belief about six hundred years ago a great suphie saint ‘Hazarat Makhdum Shah Shoeb Rahamatullah Aleh’ had founded the city of Sheikhpura. He settled over here and the dense forests were cleaned and people started settling over here. Later on it became densely populated.

During the Pallava reign also Sheikhpura was one of the chief administrative centres. It is believed that the famous Afghan ruler Sher Shah Suri had got the famous ‘Dal Kuan’ constructed over here. Till now ‘Dal Kuan’ and Sheikhpura is believed to be synonymous with each other.

During the mughal period, Sheikhpura got the status of Thana. In the British period Sheikhpura was accorded the status of Big Kotwali and after independence it was given the status of Block. On 14th April 1983 Sheikhpura became a Subdivision and on 31st July 1994 it was upgraded to District status.


Profile of Sheikhpura extracted from Bengal District Gazette on District Monghyr published in 1909 by L.S.S.O'M  

 
                                 P R  E  F  A  C  E

I desire to express my obligation to Mr.H.F.Samman, I.C.S., Collector of Monghyr, and Mr. P.W. Murphy, I.C.S.,Settlement Officer, Bihar, for their assistance in the compilation of this volume. Much valuable information has also been obtained from the Final Report on the Survey and Settlement of North Monghyr (1905-07) by Mr. H. Coupland, I.C.S.


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 From Pages 245-247

  Sheikhpura ---  A village in the extreme south-west of the Monghyr subdivision wiith a station situated on the South Bihar Railway. Population (1901) 10,135. I is an important centre for the grain trade and for the manufacture of hookah tubes, and contains a District Board bungalow,police station,and dispensary. Sheikhpura has been identified by General Cunninghum with a village visited by the Chinese pilgrim Hieun Tsiang in the seventh century A.D. Hieun Tsiang after leaving the Gaya district arrived at a large and populous village to the south of the Ganges, which possessed many Brahmanical temples ornamented with fine sculptures. There was also a great stupa built on the spot where Buddha had preached for one night. " Both distance and direction point to the vicinity of Sheikhpura, a position which is confirmed by the subsequent easterly route of the pilgrim,through forests and gorges of mountains." There are very few ancient remains except a fine tank,two mules west of the village,called Mathokar Tal on the bank of which there is a dargah,said to be the tomb of one Mathokar Khan. But as the site is said to have been originally occupied by a temple of Kali, and as the tank is still called Kali Mathokar, the name is probably only a contraction of Math Pokhar, or the temple tank, the full name having been Kali Math Pokhar temple-tank, i.e, the tank of the temple of Kali*.

About three miles to the east, near a place called Pachna there is a pass over the hills called Goalin Khand to which an interesting legend attaches. The emperor Sher Shah, it is said, was always fond of Monghyr because it was there that he obtained an early success which formed a stepping stone in his career. Once when marching to quell a rebellion in
Bengal, he stopped for a week in the fort during the month of Baisakh, the best time of the year for hunting. The governor had made preparations for a hunt in the jungles near the Sheikhpura Hills; and much to the surprise of his courtiers, the emperor, on coming to the line of elephants drawn up, ordered the Mahout to give him the reins. The astonished Mahaout replied that an elephant was guided not by reins but by Ankush, whereupon Sher Shah, jumping down, mounted his horse and rode off. The courtiers were astonished, and while some admired his courage in wishing to control an elephant by reins, others exclaimed his whimsical temper, while others murmured that the jagir of Sasaram could still be smelt through the perfume of the throne of Delhi. In the meantime, the emperor was wandering by himself in disguise, making the acquaintances of his subjects like Harun-Ul-Rashid. Among others he met an old Goalin or Milk-woman of Sheikhpura who watered his horse and gave him the milk to drink and some pulse to eat. While conversing with her, one of his followers Mian Suleman, who had been searching for him, and addressed him as emperor. He asked her what he could do for her to repay her kindness, and she then replied that the best thing he could do was to make a straight road over the hills to save her and the villagers from the tedious track around them. The emperor promised to make a road, and was as good as his words. He would not, however, let it be named after himself but called it Goalin Khand or the milk-woman's road.


*Report: Arch. Surv.Ind, vol XV, page 12-13.

From pages 205-207


 Husainabad---- A village in the south-west of the Monghyr subdivision,situated three miles south of Sheikhpura . It contains the residence of one of the oldest Muhammadan families of the district,which traces back its descent to Makhdum Sheikh Shams-ud-din, surnamed Faryad Ras Kurraish-ul-Hashmi, a Saiyid of the family of the Prophet Muhammad. According to the family tradition, he was born in Turkey, but having come to India wiith his uncle Kazi Rafi-ud-din, who held the office of  Kazi under the Sultan of Turkey,settled in Oudh and died there in 790 A.H.,i.e., about 1373 A.D. His son Sheikh Manjhan was murdered while on a journey to Bihar, and threupon his widow, with her two  sons Sheikh Mustapha and Sheikh Jumaid settled at Sheikhpura. After the death of Sheikh Mustapha,several of the family migrated to Patna where their descendants still reside; bnut about 1836 A.D. two of the family,Muhammad Yahya Khan and his son-in-law Fida Ali Khan left Patna and returned to the district where they settled at Hussainabad. The present representative of the family are called Nawabs by courtesy,the title having been enjoyed by their ancestors,some of whom were distinguished personages. Two of them Navab Shah Khan and Navab Fida Khan who met their death during Maratha raids,were it is said Waris of the Emperor of Delhi and it is claimed that the office of Wazir was hereditary in the house. The family was granted an altamgha jagir by the Emperor Aurangzeb, and Shah Alam gave Navab Ali Ibrahim Khan a robe of honour,the appointment of Shah Hazari and the title of Amin-ud-daula Aziz-ul-Mulk.

    Ali Ibrahim Khan the most distinguished member of the family, is frequently and prominently referred to in the Sair-ul-Mutakharin, where he is described as "the illustrious and high born Khan,the beneficent,munificent,excellent,learned,sincere and valiant." He appears first to have won the favour of Ali Vardi Khan who invited him to Murshidabad with other persons,distinguished for their birth,rank, learning and talent, and granted him a large pension. Subsequently he ,he became a trusted courtier of the Nawab Mir Kasim Ali Khan to whom he proved a good counsellor. He tried to dissuade him against his disastrous expedition into Nepal and also to prevent his engaging in war with the British. It was he who advised against the Nawab stopping the boat laden with arms on the way to Patna which formed a casus b elli; and later , after the defeat at Udhua Nalah, in vain urged him to release his English prisoners or at least send the women under escort to the British army under Major Adams. After defeat of Mir Kassim at Patna, Ali Ibrahim Khan remained faithful to his master, and there is an amusing tale of his diplomatic conduct when a quarrel took place between  the Nawab and his ally Suja-ud-daula, the Nawab Vizir of Oudh. Mir Kasim Ali , apparently to bring shame on on the latter,assumed the dress of a fakir,and Ali Ibrahim Khan being asked to persuade him to assume his proper dress, appeared before him wearing only a shirt and a pointed cap in place of his usual turban. After this when Shuja-ud-daula imprisoned Mir Kasim Ali, and his followers deserted. Mir Kasim   alone remained royal,showing then as on other occasion, a fidility uncommon in those troubled times.  It is said when asked why he still clung to Mir Kasim in spite on his way in which latter maligned him, his family and dignified answer brought years to the eyes even of the mean-spirited Nawab Vizir.

   After the battle of Buxar, when Mir Kasim fled west-wards, Ali Ibrahim Khan retired to Murshidabad, and thence-forward was largely involved in palace intrigues. He was appointed Deewan to the Nawab Mubarak-ud-daula and subsequently espoused the cause of Muhammad Raza Khan and effected his release from prison.He fell out, however, with the latter and was ruined by a palace intrigue. Subsequntly he was offered  high office by the Nawab, Muni Begum and the Governor General, but declined them all. Later, however,  we find that he accompanied  Warren Hastings when he went to Banaras in 1781, and that after the repression of the rising of Chait Singh, Warren Hastings granted him a khilat,confirmed the title of Amin-ud-daula Azizul-Mulk, which had been granted to him by Shah Alam and made him Judge of Benaras.  Further details of his life will be found in the Sair-ul-Muta-kharin,which gives an amusing account of his character and ways of his knack of making extempore verses, of the taste and elegance with which he he wore his clothes and turban,of the amenity of his manners and of his successes as a lover.

   The brother of this noble man was Ali Kasim,of whom there is little to record,except that,when in 1781 Warren Hastings made his well known visit to Benaras with Ali Ibrahim Khan to bring Chait Singh to reason,Ali Kasim Khan met them at Monghyr,entertained them on a lavish scale, and accompanied them to Patna. His son Mohammad Yahya khan, moved from
Patna to Hussainabad and the next head of the family was his nephew and son-in-law Fida Ali Khan. The latter earned the thanks of Government for furnishing information regarding the movement of rebels in the Mutiny of 1857, while his son Nawab Ali Khan was made a Khan Bahadur, and granted a certificate in recognition of his conduct as an enlightened and loyal zamindar and of the service he rendered in the famine of 1874. 
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पर्यटक स्थलों में शुमार होने की बाट जोह रहा मटोखर दह

अरियरी (शेखपुरा) प्रकृति की मनोरम गोद में अवस्थित शेखपुरा जिला का मटोखर दह (तालाब) एक पर्यटक स्थल होने की सारी अहर्ता रखने के बावजूद इस श्रेणी में शुमार होने की बाट जोह रहा है। टाटी नदी का किनारा और पहाड़ी इस क्षेत्र के अनुपम रूप में चार चांद लगा रही है। वैसे तो शेखपुरा के ईद-गिर्द अनेक मनमोहक स्थल है लेकिन पवित्रता एवं रमणीयता के कारण मटोखर दह एक अलग स्थान रखता है। इन
दिनों मत्स्य विभाग इस तालाब को मछली उत्पादन के लिए कई खंडों में विभक्त कर रहा है, जो इस तालाब की विशालता व सौन्दर्य को कम कर रहा है।

मटोखर दह तालाब शेखपुरा जिला मुख्यालय से लगभग 7 किलोमीटर पश्चिम एवं शेखोपुरसराय प्रखंड से लगभग 9 किलोमीटर दूरी पर अवस्थित है। यहां जाने के लिए शेखपुरा से जीप, टमटम, रिक्शा आदि साधन मुहैया हैं। यह तालाब मटोखर नामक गांव के समीप है। इसलिए इसे मटोखर दह कहते है। इस दह के दक्षिण देवरा एवं पथरैटा तथा पश्चिम में लोदीपुर व ढेवसा सरीखे प्राचीन गांव बसे है। मटोखर दह का क्षेत्रफल एक
किलोमीटर लम्बा एवं आधा किलोमीटर चौड़ा है। कालांतर में इसकी गहराई में कमी आयी है। पहले इसकी गहराई को लेकर तरह-तरह के कयास लगाये जाते थे। लोग एक छोर से दूसरे छोर तक जाने की शर्त लगाते थे, तैराकी की प्रतियोगिताएं होती थीं। इस तालाब को आर-पार करना कठिन माना जाता था। इस दह (तालाब) में कभी भी पानी नहीं सूखता था। सर्दी एवं गर्मी में अनेक प्रकार के प्रवासी पक्षी जल विहार करने आते
थे। इस दह में कमल एवं कमलिनी का जाल बिछा था, जो इसकी शोभा बढ़ाते थे। कमल के पत्तों का इस्तेमाल आसपास के गांवों में होने वाले भोज में पत्तल के रूप में किया जाता था। मटोखर गांव के लोगों एवं वहां के किसानों के लिए यह तालाब जीविका का साधन भी है। कृषि कार्य के लिए पूरे क्षेत्र में यह सिंचाई का एक मात्र साधन है। इस दह की रेहू मछली प्रसिद्ध है। इसलिए मत्स्य विभाग इस तालाब का तीन
सालाना ठेका देता है। इतना ही नहीं मत्स्य विभाग ने दह (तालाब) को टुकड़ों व विभाजित कर दिया है जिससे इसकी विशालता व सौदर्य में कमी होनी शुरू हो गयी है। यह मटोखर दह हिन्दू-मुस्लिम आस्था का केन्द्र भी है। आज भी लोग यहां पिकनिक मनाने आते है। इस तालाब के निर्माण के संबंध में तरह-तरह की किदंतियां प्रचारित है। कुछ लोग इसे द्वापर काल में भगवान श्रीकृष्ण के बड़े भ्राता बलराम के
आदेश पर ग्वाल बालों द्वारा खुदवाया मानते है। कुछ लोग इसे महाबली भीम द्वारा खुदवाया बताते है। कई इसे एक राजा द्वारा दही बेचने वाले के आग्रह पर खुदवाया गया बताते है। 'ख्वाजा बदरूद्दीन' नामक फकीर के कहने पर तालाब निर्माण की बात मानने वालों की भी कमी नहीं। प्रमाण के तौर पर तालाब किनारे अवस्थित दरगाह है जो मुस्लिमों एवं हिन्दुओं की आस्था का केन्द्र है। जानकारों का कहना है
कि तालाब के उत्तर और दक्षिण की ओर टीले है, जो इसके वास्तु के लिहाज से द्वापरयुगीन होने की पुष्टि करते हैं। पूर्व में शेखपुरा के रह चुके जिलाधिकारी आनंद किशोर ने इसके सौंदर्यीकरण का प्रयास किया, जो अधूरा ही रह गया। वर्तमान में पर्यटन विभाग द्वारा सौंदर्यीकरण के प्रयास किये जा रहे है। बहरहाल जिला प्रशासन ने इस रमणीक स्थल के आस-पास के इलाके को पालिटेकनिक कालेज व
केन्द्रीय विद्यालय खोले जाने के लिए चिह्नित किया है।

फरीद खां, शेखपुरा में कैसे शेरशाह कहलाये (सौजन्‍य दैनिक जागरण 22 मार्च 2010 )

फरीद खां, शेखपुरा में शेरशाह कहलाये। 31 जुलाई 1994 को जिला बना शेखपुरा मगध एवं अंग संस्कृति का संधिस्थल है। इस पवित्र धरती का संबंध महाभारत काल, पालवंश तथा मुस्लिम शासकों से जुड़ा है। लोकगाथाओं में वर्णित है-गिरीहिंडा पहाड़ पर हुंडा नामक दानवी से महापराक्रमी भीम ने गंधर्व विवाह किया। उनके पुत्र हुंडारक हुए। कहा जाता है कि गौतम बुद्ध ने शेखपुरा के श्यामा पोखर पर रात्रि विश्राम किया था तथा मटोखर दहपर शिष्यों को उपदेश दिया था। पाल वंश के शासनकाल में शेखपुरा मुख्य प्रशासनिक केन्द्र था। मटोखर दह तथा पचना गांव में सरोवर तथा पचना पहाड़ पर खंडहर व पवनचक्की के अंश अभी भी विद्यमान है। मुस्लिम शासनकाल में शेखपुरा को कोतवाली का दर्जा मिला। बुजुर्गो के मुताबिक फरीद खान युवा काल में शिकार करते-करते शेखपुरा से 8 किलोमीटर पश्चिम उत्तर एक गांव में पहुंचे। रात्रि विश्राम किया। फरीदपुर आज भी है। यहीं शेर का शिकार करने के बाद उनका नाम शेरशाह पड़ा। धारणा है कि उन्होंने ही शहर के खांडपर पहाड़ को कटवाकर मार्ग बनवाया तथा पहाड़ से दक्षिण कुआं खुदवाया था, जो आज दाल कुआं कहलाता है। इलाके का इतिहास अली इब्राहिम खान से लेकर अंतिम नवाब बाकर अली खान से जुड़ा है। कहते हैं-नवाब अली खान ने ठंड से परेशान सियारों में भी कम्बल बांटने का निर्देश दिया था। ब्रिटिश काल में शेखपुरा ने खान अब्दुल गफ्फार खान, डा.राजेन्द्र प्रसाद, स्वामी सहजानंद सरस्वती, रामधारी सिंह दिनकर, विनोबा भावे, डा.श्रीकृष्ण सिंह जैसे मनीषियों को अपनी ओर आकर्षित किया।



» Geographical Profile
  • Location :
    Sheikhpura is a new district carved out of Munger district on 31-07-1994. District Head Quarter Sheikhpura is situated at North side of Gaya-Kuel Rail line. This district lies in the southern part of Bihar that is bounded by Nalanda & Patna district in North, Nawada & Jamui district in South, Lakhisarai district in East and Nalanda & Nawada district in West. The district spanning in 77705 hectares is situated between North latitudes 24º45’ and 25º and East longitude 85º45’ and 86º45’.
  • Topography :
    Topographically district has two types of region – the rocky highland formed by hilly portion in centre, surrounded by fertile land in North, South, East and West. The land is sloping towards North Eastern side. Because of the low lying area in some parts of the North Eastern side, the water gets accumulated during rainy season leading to water-logged conditions. This area is geographically known as Tal area.
  • Climate:
    The district has hot summers & moderate winters. Summers start from middle of March and lasts till July. The monsoon usually breaks in the second half of June and lasts till September.
    Annual Rainfall Stastistics :
    • District - 1207mm
    • Block :
      • Ariari - 943mm
      • Barbigha - 1052mm
      • Sheikhpura - 930mm

  • Soil:
    The district has rich alluvial soil composed of sand, silt and clay in most parts of district. The soil is most fertile and suitable for agriculture. The alkaline and saline deposits are rarely found.
  • Rivers:
    There are no big rivers of perennial nature worth to be mentioned in this district. Of course there are some small rivers which flow during rainy season viz Somi, Korihari, Tati, Kachchi & Rijown.
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